Saturn by Willian Lilly ancient Astrology


Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth. Although only one-eighth the average density of Earth, with its larger volume Saturn is just over 95 times more massive. Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture.


Saturn represents the element of Matter. Not the visible tangible earth, but the primordial Substance out of which all things are made. It is also the principle of Life. It produces and destroys all forms, and is therefore represented as the god who eats his own children. Unless associated with ☉, Saturn is a cold, cruel and dark planet. It therefore rules old persons, misers, and usurers, gross material and vulgar people, and governs agricultural and mining persuits. In the mineral kingdom ♄ is represented by lead; in the spiritual realm as the god of Time.

Saturn represents darkness and fear, melancholy, gloom, and death; but it is also the god of Life, for all so-called death is merely a change of state, and in the end of an old form, is the beginning of a new state of being.


Saturn is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth. Saturn is a complex figure because of his multiple associations and long history. He was the first god of the Capitol, known since the most ancient times as Saturnius Mons, and was seen as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation. In later developments he came to be also a god of time. His reign was depicted as a Golden Age of plenty and peace. The Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum housed the state treasury. In December, he was celebrated at what is perhaps the most famous of the Roman festivals, the Saturnalia, a time of feasting, role reversals, free speech, gift-giving and revelry. Saturn the planet and Saturday are both named after the god.

In Greek mythology, Cronus, or Kronos was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus.

Cronus was usually depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.

KRONOS (Cronus) was the King of the Titans and the god of time, in particular time when viewed as a destructive, all-devouring force.




ETHERIAL father, mighty Titan, hear,[1]
Great fire of Gods and men, whom all revere:
Endu’d with various council, pure and strong,
To whom perfection and decrease belong.
Consumed by thee all forms that hourly die,
By thee restored, their former place supply;
The world immense in everlasting chains,
Strong and ineffable thy power contains
Father of vast eternity, divine,
O mighty Saturn, various speech is thine:
Blossom of earth and of the starry skies,
Husband of Rhea, and Prometheus wife.
Obstetric Nature, venerable root,
From which the various forms of being shoot;
No parts peculiar can thy power enclose,
Diffused through all, from which the world arose,
O, best of beings, of a subtle mind,
Propitious hear to holy prayers inclined;
The sacred rites benevolent attend,
And grant a blameless life, a blessed end.



DAUGHTER of great Protogonus, divine,[3]
Illustrious Rhea, to my prayer incline,
Who drivest thy holy car with speed along,
Drawn by fierce lions, terrible and strong.[4]
Mother of Jove, whose mighty arm can wield
The avenging bolt, and shake the dreadful shield.[5]
Drum-beating, frantic, of a splendid mien,[6]
Brass-sounding, honored, Saturn’s blessed queen.
Thou joyest in mountains and tumultuous fight,
And mankind’s horrid howlings, thee delight.
War’s parent, mighty, of majestic frame,
Deceitful saviour, liberating dame.[7]
Mother of Gods and men, from whom the earth
And lofty heavens derive their glorious birth;
The ætherial gales, the deeply spreading sea
Goddess ærial formed, proceed from thee.
Come, pleased with wanderings, blessed and divine,
With peace attended on our labours shine;
Bring rich abundance, and wherever found
Drive dire disease, to earth’s remotest bound.



O Mighty Titans, who from heaven and earth
Derive your noble and illustrious birth,
Our fathers fires, in Tartarus profound
Who dwell, deep merged[9] beneath the solid ground:
Fountains and principles, from whom began
The afflicted, miserable, race of man:
Who not alone in earth’s retreats abide,
But in the ocean and the air reside;
Since every species from your nature flows,
Which all prolific, nothing barren knows:
Avert your rage, if from thy infernal seats
One of your tribe should visit our retreats.



Of the Planet SATURN, and his Signification.

  • NAMES: He is called usually Saturn, but in some Authors Chronos, Phoenon, Falcifer.
  • COLOUR: He is the supreamest or highest of all Planets; is placed betwixt Jupiter and the Firmament, he is not very bright or glorious, or doth he twincle or sparkle, but is of a Pale, Wan or Leaden, Ashy colour slow in motion.
  • MOTION: Finishing his Course through the twelve signs of the Zodiack in 29 yeers, 157 dayes, or thereabouts; his middle motion is two minutes and one second; his diurnall motion sometimes is three, four, five, or six minutes, or seldom more.
  • LATITUDE: His greatest North Latitude from the Ecliptick is two degrees 48 minutes; his South Latitude from the Ecliptick is two degrees 49 minutes; and more then this he hath not.
  • HOUSES: In the Zodiack he hath two of the twelve Signes for his Houses, viz. Capricorn his Night-house, Aquarius his Day-house; he has his Exaltation in Libra, he receives his Fall in Aries; he rejoyceth in the sign Aquarius.
  • TRIPLICITY: He governeth the Aiery Triplicity by day, which is composed of these Signs; Gemini, Libra, Aquarius;
  • TERMS: in all the twelve Signe he hath these degrees for his Terms, allotted him by Ptolemy.

    In Aries, 27, 28, 29, 30.
    In Taurus, 23, 24, 25, 26.
    In Gemini, 22, 23, 24, 25.
    In Cancer, 28, 29, 30.
    In Leo, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
    In Virgo, 19, 20, 21, 22,23,24.
    In Libra, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
    In Scorpio, 28, 29, 30.
    In Sagittarius, 21, 22, 23, 24,25.
    In Capricorn, 26, 27, 28, 29,30.
    In Aquarius, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
    In Pisces, 27, 28, 29, 30.
    The meaning whereof is, that if Saturn in any Question be in any of these degrees wherein he hath a Term, he cannot be said to be Peregrine, or void of essentiall dignities; or if he be in any of these degrees allotted him for his Face or Decanate, he cannot then be said to be peregrine: understand this in all the other Planets.

  • FACE: He hath also these for his Face or Decanate.

    In Taurus, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
    In Leo, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
    In Libra, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.
    In Sagittarius, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
    In Pisces, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
    He continueth Retrograde 140 dayes. He is five dayes in his first station before Retrogradation,and so many in his second station before Direction.

  • NATURE: He is a Diurnall Planet, Cold and Dry (being far removed from the heat of the Sun) and moyst Vapours, Melancholick, Earthly, Masculine, the greater Infortune, author of Solitarinesse, Malevolent, &c.
  • MANNERS & ACTIONS, WHEN WELL DIGNIFIED: Then he is profound in Imagination, in his Acts severe, in words reserved, in speaking and giving very spare, in labour patient, in arguing or disputing grave, in obtaining the goods of this life studious and solicitous, in all manner of actions austere.
  • WHEN ILL: Then he is envious, covetous, jealous and mistrustfull, timorus, sordid, outwardly dissembling, sluggish, suspicious, stubborn, a contemner of women, a close lyar, malicious, murmuring, never contented, ever repining.
  • CORPORATURE: Most part his Body more cold and dry, of a middle stature; his complexion pale, swartish or muddy, his Eyes little and black, looking downward, a broad Forehead, black or sad Hair, and it hard or rugged, great Eares; hanging, lowring Eye-brows, thick Lips and Nose, a rare or thin Beard, a lumpish, unpleasant Countenance, either holding his Head forward or stooping, his Shoulders broad and large, and many times crooked, his Belly somewhat short and lank, his Thighs spare; lean and not long; his Knees and Feet indecent, many times shoveling or hitting one against another, &c. Page 59
  • SATURN ORIENTALL: You must observe, if Saturn be Orientall of the Sun, the stature is more short, but decent and well composed.
  • OCCIDENTALL: The man is more black and lean, and fewer Hairs; and again, if he want latitude, the body is more lean, if he have great latitude, the body is more fat or fleshy; if the latitude be Meridionall or South, more fleshy; if the latitude be Meridionall or South, more fleshy, but quick in motion. If the latitude be North, hairy and much flesh. Saturn in his first station, a little fat. In his second station, fat, ill favoured Bodies, and weak; and this observe constantly in all the other Planets.
  • QUALITY OF MEN: In generall he signifieth Husbandmen, Clowns, Beggars, Day-labourers, Old-men, Fathers, Grand-fathers, Monks, Jesuits, Sectarists.
  • PROFESSION: Curriers, Night-farmers, Miners under ground, Tinners, Potters, Broom-men, Plummers, Brick-makers, Malsters, Chimney-sweepers, Sextons of Churches, Bearers of dead corps, Scavengers, Hostlers, Colliers, Carters, Gardiners, Ditchers, Chandlers, Diers of Black cloth, an Herdsman, Shepheard or Cow-keeper.
  • SICKNESS: All Impediments in the right Ears, Teeth, all quartan Agues proceeding of cold, , dry and melancholly Distempers, Leprocies, Rheumes, Consumptions, black Jaundies, Palsies, Tremblings, vain Feares, Fantasies, Dropsie, the Hand and Foot-gout, Apoplexies, Dog-hunger, too much flux of the Hemoroids, Ruptures if in Scorpio or Leo, in any ill aspect with Venus.
  • SAVOURS: Sower, Bitter, Sharp, in mans body he principally ruleth the Spleen.
  • HEARBS: He governeth Beirsfoot, Starwort, Woolf-bane, Hemlock, Ferne, Hellebor the white and black, Henbane, Ceterach or Finger-ferne, Clotbur or Burdock, Parsnip, Dragon, Pulse, Vervine, Mandrake, Poppy, Mosse, Nightshade, Bythwind, Angelida, Sage, Box, Tutfan, Orage or golden Hearb, Spinach, Shepheards Purse, Cummin, Horitaile, Fumitory.
  • PLANTS AND TREES: Tamarisk, Savine, Sene, Capers, Rue or Hearbgrice, Polipody, Willow or Sallow Tree, Yew-tree, Cypress tree, Hemp, Pine-tree.
  • BEASTS, &c: The Asse, Cat Hare, Mouse, Mole, Elephant, Beare,,Dog, Wolf, Bastlisk, Crocodile, Scoprion, Toad, Serpent, Adder, Hog, all manner of creeping Creatures breeding of putrification, either in the Earth, Water or Ruines of Houses.
  • FISHES, BIRDS, &c: The Eele, Tortoise, Shel-fishes. The Bat or Blude-black, Crow, Lapwing, Owle, Gnat, Crane, Peacock, Grashopper, Thrush, Blackbird, Ostritch, Cuckoo.
  • PLACES: He delights in Deserts, Woods, obscure Vallies, Caves, Dens, Holes, Mountaines, or where men have been buried, Church-yards, &c. Ruinous Buildings, Cole-mines, Sinks, Dirty or Stinking Muddy Places, Wells and Houses of Offices, &c.
  • MINERALS: He ruleth over Lead, the Lead-stone, the Drosse of all Mettals, as also, the Dust and Rubbidge of every thing.
  • STONES: Saphire, Lapis Lazuli, all black, ugly Country Stones not polishable, and of a sad ashy or black colour.
  • WEATHER: He causeth Cloudy, Dark, obscure Ayre, cold and hurtfull, thick, black and cadense Clouds: but of this more particularly in a Treatise by it self.
  • WINDS: He delighteth in the East quarter of Heaven, and causeth Eastern Winds, at the time of gathering any Planet belonging to him, the Ancients did observe to turn their faces towards the East in his hour, and he, if possible, in an Angle, either in the Ascendant, or tenth, or eleventh house, the Moon applying by a Trine or Sextile to him.
  • ORBE: His Orbe is nine degrees before and after; that is,his influence begins to work, when either he applies, or any Planet applies to him, and is within nine degrees of his aspect, and from that aspect.
  • YEERS: In Generation he ruleth the first and eighth moneth after Conception.

    The greatest yeers he signifies —- 465.
    His greater —- 57.
    His mean yeers —- 43 and a half.
    His least —- 30.
    The meaning whereof is this; Admit we frame a new building, erect a Town or City, or Family, or principality is begun when Saturn is essentially and accidentally strong, the Astrologer may probably conjecture the Family, Principality, &c. may continue 465 yeers in honour &c. without any semible alteration: Again, if in ones Nativity Saturn is wel dignified, is Lord of the Geniture, &c. then according to nature he may live 57 yeers; if he be meanly distinguished, then the Native but 43; if he be Lord of the Nativity, and yet weak, the child may live 30 yeers, hardly any more; for nature of Saturn is cold and dry, and those qualities are destructive to man, &c.
    As to Age, he relates to decreped old men; Fathers, Grandfathers, the like in Plants, Trees, and all living Creatures.

  • COUNTRIES: Late Authours say he ruleth over Bavaria, Saxony, Stiria, Romandisle, Ravenna, Constantia, Ingoldstad.
  • ANGEL: Its Cassiel, alias Captiel.
    His friends are Jupiter, Sun and Mercury, his enemies Mars and Venus. We call Saturday his day, for then he begins to rule at Sun rise, and ruleth the first hour and eighth of that day.




In the days and hours of Saturn thou canst perform experiments to summon the souls from Hades, but only of those who have died a natural death. Similarly on these days and hours thou canst operate to bring either good or bad fortune to buildings; to have familiar spirits attend thee in sleep; to cause good or ill success in business, possessions, goods, seeds, fruits, and similar things, in order to acquire learning; to bring destruction and to give death, and to sow hatred and discord.
The hours of Saturn, of Mars, and of the Moon are alike good for communicating and speaking with spirits; as those of Mercury are for recovering thefts by the means of spirits.
The hours of Saturn and Mars and also the days on which the Moon is conjunct with them, or when she receives their opposition or quartile aspect, are excellent for making experiments of hatred, enmity, quarrel, and discord and other operations of the same kind which are given later on in this work.



These pentacles are usually made of the metal the most suitable to the nature of the planet; and then there is no occasion to observe the rule of particular colours.
Saturn ruleth over lead;
Jupiter over tin;
Mars over iron;
the Sun over gold;
Venus over copper;
Mercury over the mixture of metals;
and the Moon over silver.

They may also be made with exorcised virgin paper writing thereon with the colours adopted for each planet, referring to the rules already laid down in the proper chapters, and according to the planet with which the pentacle is in sympathy.
Wherefore unto Saturn the colour of black is appropriated;
Jupiter ruleth over celestial blue;
Mars over red;
the Sun over gold, or the colour of yellow or citron;
Venus over green;
Mercury over mixed colours;
the Moon over silver, or the colour of argentine earth.


Bk. 1 Ch. 25 What things are Saturnine, or under the power of Saturne.

Saturnine things,

  • amongst Elements, are Earth and also Water:
  • amongst humors, black Choller that is moist, as well natural, as adventitious, adust Choller excepted.
  • Amongst tasts, soure, tart, and dead
  • Amongst Metals, Lead, and Gold, by reason of its weight, and the golden Marcasite.
  • Amongst stones,
    • the Onix,
    • the Ziazaa,
    • the Camonius,
    • the Sapphire,
    • the brown Jasper,
    • the Chalcedon,
    • the Loadstone,
    • and all dark, weighty, earthy things.
  • Amongst Plants and Trees,
    • the Daffodill,
    • Dragonwort,
    • Rue,
    • Cummin,
    • Hellebor,
    • the tree from whence Benzoine comes,
    • Mandrake,
    • Opium,
    • and those things which stupifie,
    • and those things which are never sown,
    • and never bear fruit,
    • and those which bring forth berries of a dark colour, and black fruit,
    • as the black Fig-tree,
    • the Pine-tree,
    • the Cypress-tree,
    • And a certain tree used at burials, which never springs afresh with berries, rough, of a bitter tast, of a strong smell, of a black shadow, yielding a most sharp pitch, bearing a most unprofitable fruit, never dies with age, deadly, dedicated to Pluto,
    • as is the Hearb pass-flower, with which they were wont Anciently to strow the graves before they put the dead bodies into them, wherefore it was lawfull to make their Garlands at feasts with all Hearbs, and Flowers besides pas-flowers, because it was mournfull, and not conducing to mirth.
  • Also all creeping Animals, living apart, and solitary, nightly, sad, contemplative, dull, covetous, fearfull, melancholly, that take much pains, slow, that feed grossly, and such as eat their young. Of these kinds therefore are
    • the Ape,
    • the Cat,
    • the Hog,
    • the Mule,
    • the Camel,
    • the Bear,
    • the Mole,
    • the Asses,
    • the Wolfe,
    • the Hare,
    • the Dragon,
    • the Basilisk,
    • the Toad,
    • all Serpents,
    • and creeping things,
    • Scorpions,
    • Pismires,
    • and such things as proceed from putrefaction in the Earth, in Water, or in the ruines of houses,
      • as Mice,
      • and many sorts of Vermin.
  • Amongst birds, those are Saturnine, which
    • have long necks, and harsh voices,
      • as Cranes,
      • Estriches,
      • and Peacocks, which are dedicated to Saturn, and Juno.
    • Also the scrich-Owle,
    • the horn-Owle,
    • the Bat,
    • the Lapwing,
    • the Crow,
    • the Quaile, which is the most envious bird of all.
  • Amongst fishes,
    • the Eel, living apart from all other fish;
    • the Lamprey,
    • the Dog-fish, which devours her young,
    • also the Tortoise,
    • Oisters,
    • Cockles,
    • to which may be added Sea-spunges,
    • and all such things as come of them.
Bk. I Ch. XXXI. How Provinces, and Kingdoms are Distributed to Planets.

Macedonia, Thracia, Illyria, India, Ariana, Gordiana (many of which are countries in the lesser Asia) are under Saturn with Capricorn; but with Aquarius under him are the Sauromantian country, Oxiana, Sogdiana, Arabia, Phazania, Media, Ethiopia, which countries for the most part belong to the more inward Asia.

Bk. I Ch. XLIV. The Composition of Some Fumes Appropriated to the Planets.

For Saturn take the seed of black poppy, of henbane, the root of mandrake, the loadstone and myrrh, and make them up with the brain of a cat or the blood of a bat…
To Saturn are appropriated for fumes all odoriferous roots, as pepperwort root, etc., and the frankincense tree…

Bk. I Ch. XLVII. What Places are Suitable to Every Star

But amongst places that are appropriated to the stars, all stinking places, dark, underground, religious and mournful places, as churchyards, tombs, and houses not inhabited by men, and old, tottering, obscure, dreadful houses, and solitary dens, caves and pits, also fishponds, standing pools, fens and such like are appropriated to Saturn.

Bk. I Ch. XLIV Of Light, Colours, Candles, and Lamps, and to what Stars, Houses, and Elements severall colours are ascribed
  • It is also reported, that a Candle made of some certain Saturnine things, if being lighted, it be extinguished in the mouth of a man newly dead, will afterwards, as oft as it shines alone, bring great sadness, and fear upon them that stand about it.
  • For all colours, black, lucid, earthy, leaden, brown, have relation to Saturne.
Bk. II Ch. XXXVIII Of the Images of Saturn.

But now, what Images they did attribute to the Planets, although of these things very large volumes have been written by the ancient wise men, so that there is no need to declare them here, notwithstanding I will recite a few of them; for they made, from the operations of Saturn,

  • Saturn ascending in a stone, which is called the Loadstone, the Image of a man, having the countenance of an Hart, and Camels seet and sitting upon a Chayr or Dragon, holding in his right hand, a scythe, in his left hand a dart; which image they did hope would be profitable for prolongation of life; for Albumasar in his book Sadar, proveth that Saturn conduceth to the prolongation of life; where also he telleth that certain regions of India being subject to Saturn, there men are of a very long life and die not unless by extream old Age:
  • They made also an other Image of Saturn for length of dayes, in a saphire, at the hour of Saturn, Saturn ascending or fortunately constituted, whose figure was an old man setting upon an high chair, having his hands lifted up above his head, and in them holding a fish or Sickle, and under his feet a bunch of Grapes, his head covered with a black or dusky coloured cloth, and all his garments black or dark coloured:
  • They also make this same Image against the Stone[10] and diseases of the kidneys, viz. in the hour of Saturn, Saturn ascending with the third face of Aquarius:
  • they made also from the operations of Saturn, an Image for the encreasing in power, Saturn ascending in Capricorn; The form of which was an old man leaning on a staff having in his hand a crooked sickle, and cloathed in black.
  • They also made an Image of melted Copper, Saturn ascending in his rising, viz. in the first degree of Aries, or which is more true in the first degree of Capricorn, which Image they affirm to speak with a mans voyce;
  • They made also out of the operations of Saturn, and also Mercury, an Image of cast metall, like a beautifull man, which they promised would foretell things to come, and made it on the day of Mercury, on the third hour of Saturn, the sign of Gemini ascending, being the house of Mercury, signifying prophet, Saturn and Mercury being in conjunction in Aquarius in the ninth place of Heaven, which is also called God; Moreover let Saturn have a trine aspect on the ascendent, and the Moon in like manner, and the Sun have an aspect on the place of conjunction. Venus obtaining some Angle may be powerfull and occidentall; let Mars be combust by the Sun, but let it not have an aspect on Saturn and Mercury; for they said, that the splendor of the powers of these Stars was diffused upon this Image, and it did speak with men, and declare those things which are profitable for them.
Bk. 2 Ch. LVIII Of the names of the Celestials, and their rule over this inferiour world, viz. Man.

The names of Celestiall souls are very many, and diverse according to their manifold power and vertue upon these inferior things, from whence they have received divers names, which the ancients in their hymnes and prayer made use of. Concerning which you must observe, that every one of these souls according to Orpheus’s Divinity, is said to have a double vertue; the one placed in knowing, the other in vivifying, and governing its body. Upon this account in the Celestiall spheres, Orpheus cals the former vertue Bacchus, the other a Muse. Hence he is not inebriated by any Bacchus, who hath not first been coupled to his Muse.

in the sphere of Saturn, Amphietus, and Polyphymnia;

Bk. 2 Ch. LIX Of the seven governers of the world, the Planets, and of their various names serving to Magicall speeches.

Moreover they did call those governors of the world, (as Hermes calls them) Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon, by many names, and epithites;

viz. calling Saturn Coelius, scythe-bearer, the father of the Gods, the Lord of the time, the high Lord, the great, the wise, the intelligent, ingenious revolutor, of a long space, an old man of great profundity, the author of secret contemplation, impressing, or depressing great thoughts in the hearts of men, destroying and preserving all things, overturning force and power, and constituting, a keeper of secret things, and a shewer of them, causing the loss, and finding of the author of life and death.

Bk. 4 The shapes familiar to the Spirits of Saturn.

They appear for the most part with a tall, lean and slender body, with an angry countenance, having four faces; one in the hinder part of the head, one on the former part of the head, and on each side nosed or beaked: there likewise appeareth a face on each knee, of a black shining color: their motion is the moving of the winde, with a kinde of earthquake: their signe is which earth, whiter than any Snow. The particular forms are,

  • A King having a beard, riding on a Dragon.
  • An Old man with a beard.
  • An Old woman leaning on a staffe.
  • A Hog.
  • A Dragon.
  • An Owl.
  • A Black Garment.
  • A Hooke or Sickle.
  • A Juniper-tree.

Additional Reading

  1. TT: Mighty Titan. See the notes to the preceding hymn. [… as preserved by Proclus in his excellent Commentary on the Timæus, p. 295, and by Athenagoras in Apol. “She produced seven beautiful pure virgins with voluble eyes, and seven sons, all of them kings, and covered with downy hair; the daughters are Themis and prudent Tethys, and fair-haired Mnemosyne, and blessed Thea; together with Dione, having an illustrious form, and Phœbe and Rhea the mother of king Jupiter. But this illustrious earth generated celestial sons, which are also sirnamed Titans, because they took revenge on the great starry heaven; and these are Cæus and great Cræus, and robust Phorcys, and Saturn, and Ocean, and Hyperion, and Iapetus.” … And we shall find that Saturn in the following hymn is called “blossom of the earth;” … and the Titans, in Hymn 36, “the illustrious progeny of heaven and earth.”]  ↩

  2. TT: Rhea, according to the Orphic and Platonic theology, is one of the zoogonic or vivific principles of the universe; having a maternal rank among the universal paternal orders, i. e. between Saturn and Jupiter. Hence she calls forth the causes latent in Saturn to the procreation of the universe; and definitely unfolds all the genera of the Gods. So that she is filled from Saturn, with an intelligible and prolific power, which she imparts to Jupiter the demiurgus of the universe; filling his essence with a vivific abundance. Since this Goddess then is a medium between the two intellectual parents of the universe, Saturn and Jupiter, the former of which collects intellectual multitude into one, but the other scatters and divides it. Hence says Proclus, in Theol. Plat. p. 266. this Goddess produces in herself the demiurgic causes of the universe; but imparts her diffusive power abundantly to secondary natures. On this account Plato assimilates her prolific abundance to the flowing of waters; signifying nothing more by the word flowing, than that fontal power, by which she singularly contains the divine rivers of life. And, p. 267. Proclus informs us, that this Goddess, according to Orpheus, when considered as united to Saturn by the most exalted part of her essence, is called Rhea: but considered as producing Jupiter, and, together with Jove, unfolding the universal and particular orders of the Gods, she is called Ceres.  ↩

  3. TT: Daughter of great Protogonus. In the note to Hercules it appears that Rhea is one of the progeny of the intellectual earth, resident in Phanes; and from the note to Hymn 5, to Protogonus, we learn from Proclus, that Phanes is to be considered in the intelligible as well as in the intellectual orders. Hence Rhea is, with perfect agreement to the Orphic theology, the daughter of Protogonus, considered as subsisting among the intelligible Gods.  ↩

  4. TT: Drawn by fierce lions, &c. I have here followed the correction of Pierson, who reads ταυροφονων for ταυροφορον: for Rhea is the same with the mother of the Gods, who is celebrated in the Hymn to her, as seated in a car drawn by lions.  ↩

  5. The lightning-bolt of (her son) Zeus, and the shild possibly refers to that which she gave Dionysys to aid in his exploits in India in book 25 of The Dionysiaca.  ↩

  6. TT: Rhea, in the Orphic theology, is among the mundane divinities, the earth. Hence, according to Varro, she is represented with a drum; because that instrument is a symbol of the earth. August. dc Civitat. lib. vii.  ↩

  7. TT: Deceitful saviour. When Jupiter was born (says the fable) his mother Rhea in order to deceive Saturn, gave him a stone wrapped in swaddling bands, in the place of Jove; informing him that was her offspring. Saturn immediately devoured the stone; and Jupiter who was privately educated, at length obtained the government of the world. With great propriety, therefore, is she called by the poet a deceitful saviour. This fable, according to Phurnutus, signifies the creation of the world. For at that time Nature (which among elementary essences is the same with Jupiter) was then nourished in the world, and at length prevailed. The stone devoured by Saturn is the earth, alluding to its firmly occupying the middle place: for says Phurnutus, beings could not abide without such a foundation for their support. From this all things are produced, and derive their proper aliment. Opusc. Mythol. p. 147.  ↩

  8. TT: See note to Hymn xxxi. to Pallas. [The fable of the giants is common; but its philosophical explanation is, I fear, but little known and less understood. For the sake of the liberal, therefore, the following account of the battles of the Gods, from the excellent Commentary of Proclus, on Plato’s Republic, p. 373, is inserted. “The divisible progressions of all beings, and the diversities of substances, receive a supernal origin, from a division of unknown primitive causes, which are mutually at strife with principles, subject to the universe. For some determine their essence about unity, on which they depend; and others receive in themselves a never-failing power of infinity, by which they generate universals, and a cause of multitude and progression, according to which they possess their peculiar essences. Hence, after the same manner as the first principles of beings, are mutually separated from each other; so all divine genera and true beings have among themselves a progression distinguished by order. In consequence of this, some insert in things posterior the principle cause of unity; but others afford the power of separation. Some are the causes of conversion to inferiors, and of collecting the multitude of progressive natures to their proper principles: while others promote their progression and procreation, emanating from principles, as their source. Some supply the power of generating to inferiors; and others exhibit a constant and undefiled purity. There are some, again, containing the cause of separable goods; and others, of such goods as subsist together with their recipients. Indeed, after this manner, the various contrariety of such kinds appears in all the administrations of true being. Thus the station or quiet of things constantly establishing being in themselves, resists efficacious and vital powers of motion. So the communication of identity, on every side similar to itself (if the expression may be allowed) is specially opposed to the discretions of diversity. Thus, too, similitude fights with dissimilitude, and equality with inequality. Since this is the case, can it be wonderful, that mythologists, perceiving a contrariety of this kind among the Gods, and the first principles of things, should represent it to their pupils by contentions and wars? For though the divine genera are always united with each other, yet they preside as well over those who administer to union, as over those who machinate confusion. And this is the first reason of the wars of the Gods. But it is lawful to produce another reason, and to affirm that the Gods are indeed indivisibly conjoined, and subsist together in mutual uniformity: but that their progressions into the universe, and participations by recipient natures, become disjoined and divisible, and by this means filled with contrariety. For things subject to the power of the Gods, cannot receive their diffused powers, and multiform illustrations, without mixture and confusion. Hence the last orders dependent on the Gods, since they are produced by a long interval from the first causes, but are contiguous to the concerns they administer, and adhere to matter, contract contrariety, and an all-various division; partially presiding over material affairs, and diminishing and dispersing those separate powers, which before subsisted in a superior manner, uniformly and indivisibly, in their primitive causes. Since, then, such and so many are the ways, by which, according to the mysteries of theologists, war is usually referred to the Gods; other poets who, seized with fury, have interpreted divine concerns, introduced the battles and wars of the Gods, according to the first reasons, i. e. so far as the divine genera admit of diversity, according to the first principles of all things. For fables, concealing truth under a veil, shew that such things as recall to principles, oppose and fight with the authors of generation: collecting with separating natures, things unifying with such as multiply by the progression of beings; and universal genera, with such as operate in a partial and particular manner. Hence they relate, that the Titans (or dæmons subservient to Nature) fight with Bacchus, (or Nature) and the giants with Jove. For union, and an indivisible work, is proper to Bacchus and Jupiter, as the demiurgic causes of the world; but the Titans and Giants produce the demiurgic powers into multitude; partially administering the concerns of the universe, and existing as the proximate parents of material natures. ↩

  9. Possibly ‘submerged’?  ↩

  10. Kidney stones.  ↩

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