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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth. Although only one-eighth the average density of Earth, with its larger volume Saturn is just over 95 times more massive. Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture.
Saturn represents the element of Matter. Not the visible tangible earth, but the primordial Substance out of which all things are made. It is also the principle of Life. It produces and destroys all forms, and is therefore represented as the god who eats his own children. Unless associated with ☉, Saturn is a cold, cruel and dark planet. It therefore rules old persons, misers, and usurers, gross material and vulgar people, and governs agricultural and mining persuits. In the mineral kingdom ♄ is represented by lead; in the spiritual realm as the god of Time.
Saturn represents darkness and fear, melancholy, gloom, and death; but it is also the god of Life, for all so-called death is merely a change of state, and in the end of an old form, is the beginning of a new state of being.
Saturn is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth. Saturn is a complex figure because of his multiple associations and long history. He was the first god of the Capitol, known since the most ancient times as Saturnius Mons, and was seen as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation. In later developments he came to be also a god of time. His reign was depicted as a Golden Age of plenty and peace. The Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum housed the state treasury. In December, he was celebrated at what is perhaps the most famous of the Roman festivals, the Saturnalia, a time of feasting, role reversals, free speech, gift-giving and revelry. Saturn the planet and Saturday are both named after the god.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, or Kronos was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus.
Cronus was usually depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.
KRONOS (Cronus) was the King of the Titans and the god of time, in particular time when viewed as a destructive, all-devouring force.
The FUMIGATION from STORAX.
ETHERIAL father, mighty Titan, hear,
Great fire of Gods and men, whom all revere:
Endu’d with various council, pure and strong,
To whom perfection and decrease belong.
Consumed by thee all forms that hourly die,
By thee restored, their former place supply;
The world immense in everlasting chains,
Strong and ineffable thy power contains
Father of vast eternity, divine,
O mighty Saturn, various speech is thine:
Blossom of earth and of the starry skies,
Husband of Rhea, and Prometheus wife.
Obstetric Nature, venerable root,
From which the various forms of being shoot;
No parts peculiar can thy power enclose,
Diffused through all, from which the world arose,
O, best of beings, of a subtle mind,
Propitious hear to holy prayers inclined;
The sacred rites benevolent attend,
And grant a blameless life, a blessed end.
The FUMIGATION from AROMATICS.
DAUGHTER of great Protogonus, divine,
Illustrious Rhea, to my prayer incline,
Who drivest thy holy car with speed along,
Drawn by fierce lions, terrible and strong.
Mother of Jove, whose mighty arm can wield
The avenging bolt, and shake the dreadful shield.
Drum-beating, frantic, of a splendid mien,
Brass-sounding, honored, Saturn’s blessed queen.
Thou joyest in mountains and tumultuous fight,
And mankind’s horrid howlings, thee delight.
War’s parent, mighty, of majestic frame,
Deceitful saviour, liberating dame.
Mother of Gods and men, from whom the earth
And lofty heavens derive their glorious birth;
The ætherial gales, the deeply spreading sea
Goddess ærial formed, proceed from thee.
Come, pleased with wanderings, blessed and divine,
With peace attended on our labours shine;
Bring rich abundance, and wherever found
Drive dire disease, to earth’s remotest bound.
The FUMIGATION from FRANKINCENSE.
O Mighty Titans, who from heaven and earth
Derive your noble and illustrious birth,
Our fathers fires, in Tartarus profound
Who dwell, deep merged beneath the solid ground:
Fountains and principles, from whom began
The afflicted, miserable, race of man:
Who not alone in earth’s retreats abide,
But in the ocean and the air reside;
Since every species from your nature flows,
Which all prolific, nothing barren knows:
Avert your rage, if from thy infernal seats
One of your tribe should visit our retreats.
Of the Planet SATURN, and his Signification.
TERMS: in all the twelve Signe he hath these degrees for his Terms, allotted him by Ptolemy.
In Aries, 27, 28, 29, 30.
In Taurus, 23, 24, 25, 26.
In Gemini, 22, 23, 24, 25.
In Cancer, 28, 29, 30.
In Leo, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
In Virgo, 19, 20, 21, 22,23,24.
In Libra, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
In Scorpio, 28, 29, 30.
In Sagittarius, 21, 22, 23, 24,25.
In Capricorn, 26, 27, 28, 29,30.
In Aquarius, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
In Pisces, 27, 28, 29, 30.
The meaning whereof is, that if Saturn in any Question be in any of these degrees wherein he hath a Term, he cannot be said to be Peregrine, or void of essentiall dignities; or if he be in any of these degrees allotted him for his Face or Decanate, he cannot then be said to be peregrine: understand this in all the other Planets.
FACE: He hath also these for his Face or Decanate.
In Taurus, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
In Leo, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
In Libra, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.
In Sagittarius, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
In Pisces, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
He continueth Retrograde 140 dayes. He is five dayes in his first station before Retrogradation,and so many in his second station before Direction.
YEERS: In Generation he ruleth the first and eighth moneth after Conception.
The greatest yeers he signifies —- 465.
His greater —- 57.
His mean yeers —- 43 and a half.
His least —- 30.
The meaning whereof is this; Admit we frame a new building, erect a Town or City, or Family, or principality is begun when Saturn is essentially and accidentally strong, the Astrologer may probably conjecture the Family, Principality, &c. may continue 465 yeers in honour &c. without any semible alteration: Again, if in ones Nativity Saturn is wel dignified, is Lord of the Geniture, &c. then according to nature he may live 57 yeers; if he be meanly distinguished, then the Native but 43; if he be Lord of the Nativity, and yet weak, the child may live 30 yeers, hardly any more; for nature of Saturn is cold and dry, and those qualities are destructive to man, &c.
As to Age, he relates to decreped old men; Fathers, Grandfathers, the like in Plants, Trees, and all living Creatures.
OF THE DAYS, AND HOURS, AND OF THE VIRTUES OF THE PLANETS.
In the days and hours of Saturn thou canst perform experiments to summon the souls from Hades, but only of those who have died a natural death. Similarly on these days and hours thou canst operate to bring either good or bad fortune to buildings; to have familiar spirits attend thee in sleep; to cause good or ill success in business, possessions, goods, seeds, fruits, and similar things, in order to acquire learning; to bring destruction and to give death, and to sow hatred and discord.
The hours of Saturn, of Mars, and of the Moon are alike good for communicating and speaking with spirits; as those of Mercury are for recovering thefts by the means of spirits.
The hours of Saturn and Mars and also the days on which the Moon is conjunct with them, or when she receives their opposition or quartile aspect, are excellent for making experiments of hatred, enmity, quarrel, and discord and other operations of the same kind which are given later on in this work.
CONCERNING THE HOLY PENTACLES OR MEDALS
These pentacles are usually made of the metal the most suitable to the nature of the planet; and then there is no occasion to observe the rule of particular colours.
Saturn ruleth over lead;
Jupiter over tin;
Mars over iron;
the Sun over gold;
Venus over copper;
Mercury over the mixture of metals;
and the Moon over silver.
They may also be made with exorcised virgin paper writing thereon with the colours adopted for each planet, referring to the rules already laid down in the proper chapters, and according to the planet with which the pentacle is in sympathy.
Wherefore unto Saturn the colour of black is appropriated;
Jupiter ruleth over celestial blue;
Mars over red;
the Sun over gold, or the colour of yellow or citron;
Venus over green;
Mercury over mixed colours;
the Moon over silver, or the colour of argentine earth.
Macedonia, Thracia, Illyria, India, Ariana, Gordiana (many of which are countries in the lesser Asia) are under Saturn with Capricorn; but with Aquarius under him are the Sauromantian country, Oxiana, Sogdiana, Arabia, Phazania, Media, Ethiopia, which countries for the most part belong to the more inward Asia.
For Saturn take the seed of black poppy, of henbane, the root of mandrake, the loadstone and myrrh, and make them up with the brain of a cat or the blood of a bat…
To Saturn are appropriated for fumes all odoriferous roots, as pepperwort root, etc., and the frankincense tree…
But amongst places that are appropriated to the stars, all stinking places, dark, underground, religious and mournful places, as churchyards, tombs, and houses not inhabited by men, and old, tottering, obscure, dreadful houses, and solitary dens, caves and pits, also fishponds, standing pools, fens and such like are appropriated to Saturn.
But now, what Images they did attribute to the Planets, although of these things very large volumes have been written by the ancient wise men, so that there is no need to declare them here, notwithstanding I will recite a few of them; for they made, from the operations of Saturn,
The names of Celestiall souls are very many, and diverse according to their manifold power and vertue upon these inferior things, from whence they have received divers names, which the ancients in their hymnes and prayer made use of. Concerning which you must observe, that every one of these souls according to Orpheus’s Divinity, is said to have a double vertue; the one placed in knowing, the other in vivifying, and governing its body. Upon this account in the Celestiall spheres, Orpheus cals the former vertue Bacchus, the other a Muse. Hence he is not inebriated by any Bacchus, who hath not first been coupled to his Muse.
in the sphere of Saturn, Amphietus, and Polyphymnia;
Moreover they did call those governors of the world, (as Hermes calls them) Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon, by many names, and epithites;
viz. calling Saturn Coelius, scythe-bearer, the father of the Gods, the Lord of the time, the high Lord, the great, the wise, the intelligent, ingenious revolutor, of a long space, an old man of great profundity, the author of secret contemplation, impressing, or depressing great thoughts in the hearts of men, destroying and preserving all things, overturning force and power, and constituting, a keeper of secret things, and a shewer of them, causing the loss, and finding of the author of life and death.
They appear for the most part with a tall, lean and slender body, with an angry countenance, having four faces; one in the hinder part of the head, one on the former part of the head, and on each side nosed or beaked: there likewise appeareth a face on each knee, of a black shining color: their motion is the moving of the winde, with a kinde of earthquake: their signe is which earth, whiter than any Snow. The particular forms are,
TT: Mighty Titan. See the notes to the preceding hymn. [… as preserved by Proclus in his excellent Commentary on the Timæus, p. 295, and by Athenagoras in Apol. “She produced seven beautiful pure virgins with voluble eyes, and seven sons, all of them kings, and covered with downy hair; the daughters are Themis and prudent Tethys, and fair-haired Mnemosyne, and blessed Thea; together with Dione, having an illustrious form, and Phœbe and Rhea the mother of king Jupiter. But this illustrious earth generated celestial sons, which are also sirnamed Titans, because they took revenge on the great starry heaven; and these are Cæus and great Cræus, and robust Phorcys, and Saturn, and Ocean, and Hyperion, and Iapetus.” … And we shall find that Saturn in the following hymn is called “blossom of the earth;” … and the Titans, in Hymn 36, “the illustrious progeny of heaven and earth.”] ↩
TT: Rhea, according to the Orphic and Platonic theology, is one of the zoogonic or vivific principles of the universe; having a maternal rank among the universal paternal orders, i. e. between Saturn and Jupiter. Hence she calls forth the causes latent in Saturn to the procreation of the universe; and definitely unfolds all the genera of the Gods. So that she is filled from Saturn, with an intelligible and prolific power, which she imparts to Jupiter the demiurgus of the universe; filling his essence with a vivific abundance. Since this Goddess then is a medium between the two intellectual parents of the universe, Saturn and Jupiter, the former of which collects intellectual multitude into one, but the other scatters and divides it. Hence says Proclus, in Theol. Plat. p. 266. this Goddess produces in herself the demiurgic causes of the universe; but imparts her diffusive power abundantly to secondary natures. On this account Plato assimilates her prolific abundance to the flowing of waters; signifying nothing more by the word flowing, than that fontal power, by which she singularly contains the divine rivers of life. And, p. 267. Proclus informs us, that this Goddess, according to Orpheus, when considered as united to Saturn by the most exalted part of her essence, is called Rhea: but considered as producing Jupiter, and, together with Jove, unfolding the universal and particular orders of the Gods, she is called Ceres. ↩
TT: Daughter of great Protogonus. In the note to Hercules it appears that Rhea is one of the progeny of the intellectual earth, resident in Phanes; and from the note to Hymn 5, to Protogonus, we learn from Proclus, that Phanes is to be considered in the intelligible as well as in the intellectual orders. Hence Rhea is, with perfect agreement to the Orphic theology, the daughter of Protogonus, considered as subsisting among the intelligible Gods. ↩
TT: Drawn by fierce lions, &c. I have here followed the correction of Pierson, who reads ταυροφονων for ταυροφορον: for Rhea is the same with the mother of the Gods, who is celebrated in the Hymn to her, as seated in a car drawn by lions. ↩
The lightning-bolt of (her son) Zeus, and the shild possibly refers to that which she gave Dionysys to aid in his exploits in India in book 25 of The Dionysiaca. ↩
TT: Rhea, in the Orphic theology, is among the mundane divinities, the earth. Hence, according to Varro, she is represented with a drum; because that instrument is a symbol of the earth. August. dc Civitat. lib. vii. ↩
TT: Deceitful saviour. When Jupiter was born (says the fable) his mother Rhea in order to deceive Saturn, gave him a stone wrapped in swaddling bands, in the place of Jove; informing him that was her offspring. Saturn immediately devoured the stone; and Jupiter who was privately educated, at length obtained the government of the world. With great propriety, therefore, is she called by the poet a deceitful saviour. This fable, according to Phurnutus, signifies the creation of the world. For at that time Nature (which among elementary essences is the same with Jupiter) was then nourished in the world, and at length prevailed. The stone devoured by Saturn is the earth, alluding to its firmly occupying the middle place: for says Phurnutus, beings could not abide without such a foundation for their support. From this all things are produced, and derive their proper aliment. Opusc. Mythol. p. 147. ↩
TT: See note to Hymn xxxi. to Pallas. [The fable of the giants is common; but its philosophical explanation is, I fear, but little known and less understood. For the sake of the liberal, therefore, the following account of the battles of the Gods, from the excellent Commentary of Proclus, on Plato’s Republic, p. 373, is inserted. “The divisible progressions of all beings, and the diversities of substances, receive a supernal origin, from a division of unknown primitive causes, which are mutually at strife with principles, subject to the universe. For some determine their essence about unity, on which they depend; and others receive in themselves a never-failing power of infinity, by which they generate universals, and a cause of multitude and progression, according to which they possess their peculiar essences. Hence, after the same manner as the first principles of beings, are mutually separated from each other; so all divine genera and true beings have among themselves a progression distinguished by order. In consequence of this, some insert in things posterior the principle cause of unity; but others afford the power of separation. Some are the causes of conversion to inferiors, and of collecting the multitude of progressive natures to their proper principles: while others promote their progression and procreation, emanating from principles, as their source. Some supply the power of generating to inferiors; and others exhibit a constant and undefiled purity. There are some, again, containing the cause of separable goods; and others, of such goods as subsist together with their recipients. Indeed, after this manner, the various contrariety of such kinds appears in all the administrations of true being. Thus the station or quiet of things constantly establishing being in themselves, resists efficacious and vital powers of motion. So the communication of identity, on every side similar to itself (if the expression may be allowed) is specially opposed to the discretions of diversity. Thus, too, similitude fights with dissimilitude, and equality with inequality. Since this is the case, can it be wonderful, that mythologists, perceiving a contrariety of this kind among the Gods, and the first principles of things, should represent it to their pupils by contentions and wars? For though the divine genera are always united with each other, yet they preside as well over those who administer to union, as over those who machinate confusion. And this is the first reason of the wars of the Gods. But it is lawful to produce another reason, and to affirm that the Gods are indeed indivisibly conjoined, and subsist together in mutual uniformity: but that their progressions into the universe, and participations by recipient natures, become disjoined and divisible, and by this means filled with contrariety. For things subject to the power of the Gods, cannot receive their diffused powers, and multiform illustrations, without mixture and confusion. Hence the last orders dependent on the Gods, since they are produced by a long interval from the first causes, but are contiguous to the concerns they administer, and adhere to matter, contract contrariety, and an all-various division; partially presiding over material affairs, and diminishing and dispersing those separate powers, which before subsisted in a superior manner, uniformly and indivisibly, in their primitive causes. Since, then, such and so many are the ways, by which, according to the mysteries of theologists, war is usually referred to the Gods; other poets who, seized with fury, have interpreted divine concerns, introduced the battles and wars of the Gods, according to the first reasons, i. e. so far as the divine genera admit of diversity, according to the first principles of all things. For fables, concealing truth under a veil, shew that such things as recall to principles, oppose and fight with the authors of generation: collecting with separating natures, things unifying with such as multiply by the progression of beings; and universal genera, with such as operate in a partial and particular manner. Hence they relate, that the Titans (or dæmons subservient to Nature) fight with Bacchus, (or Nature) and the giants with Jove. For union, and an indivisible work, is proper to Bacchus and Jupiter, as the demiurgic causes of the world; but the Titans and Giants produce the demiurgic powers into multitude; partially administering the concerns of the universe, and existing as the proximate parents of material natures.” ↩
Possibly ‘submerged’? ↩
Kidney stones. ↩