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Written by Naraka
Usual chaldean order:
Saturn Jupiter Mars Sol Venus Mercury Luna
This is the order, slowest to fastest, of their apparent speed of movement. It's basically the order used everywhere for everything; it's what our eyeballs could see.
As above, skipping by 3. Or by arranging the above clockwise in a circle, drawing a heptagram between them, and following the heptagram's lines.
Venus / Friday
Sol / Sunday
Mars / Tuesday
Jupiter / Thursday
Mercury / Wednesday
Saturn / Saturday
Luna / Monday
It's almost skipping forward by 2's, but Mercury would need moved to the end for that to work. Mercury has a way of being a dick like that.
I have no idea how this order came about but there is internal consistency:
where a prince of a given planet is 'X of Y', the following planet's king is invariably 'X of X', and they're following this same order.
Venus of Venus (King)
Sol of Venus (Prince)
Sol of Sol (K)
Mars of Sol (P)
Mars of Mars (K)
Jupiter of Mars (P)
Mercury of Jupiter (P)
Saturn of Mercury (P)
Luna of Saturn (P)
Venus of Luna (P)
The next king ofc is back to the top with Venus of Venus, and all the Governers are the same order, still, for any given planet. This is all rather similar to how planetary hours work but those use the chaldean order and there's 12 hours per day/night and aside from 'follows a cycle' isn't really relevant.
But I can't work with things I don't grok so for shits and giggles I also arranged this order with a heptagram, the way the week day order can be derived from the chaldean order. See attachment. Considering he's possibly (not likely, but supposedly attributed) the author of "The Little Book of Black Venus" ( http://jwmt.org/v2n12/venus.html ) and most definitely the author of the Heiroglyphic Monad (regardless what the text says, if you just stare at it off hand I'm sorry but it looks like a buncha shit added to venus), this arrangement basically reeks of Dee.
I don't know if this arrangement is at all relevant, but just tossing mercury to the end of the series between luna and venus would definitely cock up the nice thing where blatant opposites aren't directly in line with eachother.
Chaldean order: Saturn Jupiter Mars Sol Venus Mercury Luna
Backwards: Luna Mercury Venus Sol Mars Jupiter Saturn
Backwards, Venus origin: Venus Sol Mars Jupiter Saturn Luna Mercury
Enochian/Dick-Mercury: Venus Sol Mars Jupiter Mercury Saturn Luna
Aside from Saturnday, Sunday, and Monday. The rest of the names of the days of the week come from the Norse and Germanic traditions. Tuesday is named after Tyr ( a war god), Wednesday is named after Wotan (trickster and psychopomp), Thursday is named after the Thurses (or Thurs Giants, not Thor), and Friday after Freya (love goddess). The planetary attributes came after the Romans spent time in the Germanic lands and compared the Northern gods to their own.
Most classic example is with Odin/ Wotan and how they compared him to the Roman god Merurius. Both would communicate messages to mankind, both were tricksters, both sought knowledge and were lords of magic, and both were psychopomps for the dead. Because of this Tacitus naturally stated that they are one and of the same. So Wotan and Mercurius would assimilate into each other. And what better way to bring a subjugated people under your rule than to turn their god into your god.. So Wotan and Mercurius melded. And Wotan became associated with the planet Mercury. And the day of Mercury became Wotansday or Wednesday. Granted there is a lot more to it than that, but this is the extremely simplified veraion due to space restrictions and I am replying using my phone. Hope this may help..
Meanwhile India was using a planetarily named 7-day week while most of these civilizations were in diapers, but I don't recall if they used the same order for any of their calendars and I havn't read anything that isn't random web crap on it and just thinking about Hindu mythology gives me a headache so it may or may not be an earlier source. Sumer definitely is although only so far as planets-days-gods, they used like 3x 7-day weeks plus whatever to make up the rest of the month (they were still screwing around with the moon too or something, we really owe a lot to Sosigenes), the 'normal' week's days were named after the relevant deities for the associated planet, which by way of similar translation in Babylon wound up in Epinomis somewhere around third or fourth century BCE and Sosigenes was likely as aware of this as Julius.
Along the way most the world also picked up from Sumer, also a lot of time by way of Babylon &c, a good chunk of other notions we still use for time like a day of "rest" (which for them meant sacrifice, who's up for BBQ? I'm pretty sure this one didn't involve char-broiled humans... pretty sure), there being 60 seconds in a minute, 360 degrees in a circle, which you can divide by 30 into a particular thing we all know and love. They were all about base-60 math and only being able to see 7 mobiles probably drove them a little more insane than years not being quite 360 days.
Anyhow in most romance languages that derived from Latin the weekdays are still just the local variation of the roman planetary names, except for Sunday as Constantine renamed it to Dominicus and decided it'd be the xtian day of rest and be the start of the week rather than Saturday which no one else really cared about as saturday or ninurta or... actually I think that one's the same in sumer/babylon but whatever it was the 'rest' day anyway, so Constantine decided to call sunday god day so most latin-derived sundays look like someone threw dominicus or such through a blender.
Norse languages are the only real outliers and English is a weird ass pidgin of Anglo-Saxon Norse with a crapload of French introduced in the 11th century with the Norman invasion, but we managed to keep our weekday names with the pre-Constantine dies sol rather than adopting French's Latin-derived names and considering the old germanic ones to be swear words which is how a lot of our swear words came about but that's a different topic. At 40-50-something AD it was probably cheaper than yet more blood on a sword to just give the crazy assholes with the meadhorns and battle axes and heartfelt desires to die in battle this simple token concession and let them use their gods to accept it and practically *all* the Norse-ish countries did the same thing with their cognate gods as they fell into line adopting it (and Rome itself hadn't really converted fully off the 8-day crazy crap themselves until like the 400's anyway). Rome didn't have the resources to expend on enforcing newspeak or we'd probably be calling sunday something like dominicus too, but we did get the weird skipping every 3 chaldean order like most of western and near eastern civilization as we know them today. Rome didn't need it everywhere though, in Irish and Scottish Gaelic sunday is Dé Domhnaigh and Didòmhnaich (sometimes Là na Sàbaid, sabbath day); they mostly just took the Roman names as offered despite there having been a known pre-Roman Celtic calendar. But then 'whisky' is derived from Latin too, eventually from aqua vitae. It may have been involved in this decision.
On that note I think I'll have a glass and go have a chat with these bnapsen/brorges fellows. Or perhaps I'll do those the other way around. If I die ya'll know what happened.